Probing Configurations

Lake Shore micromanipulated probe arm

Flexible, expandable probing

This comprehensive line of standard micro-manipulated probe arms and accessories to meet a variety of scientific needs. Specific needs of DC, RF, microwave, and optical probing can be accommodated.

  • All probes capable of operation over the full sample stage temperature, vacuum and magnetic field range of each probe station model
  • For magnetic field probe stations, configurations will be non-magnetic
  • One sensor is installed wired to a 6-pin feedthrough in arm location #1 standard for all probe station models. Optional sensors can be ordered (PA-SEN) with the purchase of additional probe arms (PS-PAB-XX).

Probing configurations and their uses

General purpose DCSmall signal/low noise DC measurements
High impedance DCHigh impedance/low current leakage measurements
RF up to 1 GHzTypical kHz and MHz RF measurements with banded operation up to 1  can be upgraded to RF/microwave 40 GHz with purchase of a GSG probe
RF/microwave up to 40 GHzMeasurements with up to 40 GHz compatible measurement equipment; compatible with DC/RF probes if voltage biasing or lower frequency measurements are needed that do not dictate GSG probing
RF/microwave up to 67 GHzMeasurements with 50 and 67 GHz compatible measurement equipment
Fiber optic probeInterrogation of samples with optical stimulus, light collection from device

Probing configurations hardware

 FeedthroughProbe Internal cablePlanarizationCustomer specifies when ordering
General purpose DC
2-lug BNCZN50R or ZN50R-CVTMiniature cryogenic coaxial with grounded shieldnoProbe tip material and radius, variable or fixed temperature
High impedance DC
3-lug triaxial ZN50R or ZN50R-CVTMiniature cryogenic coaxial with shield to triaxial inner guardnoProbe tip material and radius, variable or fixed temperature
RF up to 1 GHz
2.92 mm (K-connector)ZN50R or ZN50R-CVTSemi-rigid coaxial, 2.92 mm with grounded shieldnoProbe tip material and radius, variable or fixed temperature
RF/microwave up to 40 GHz
2.92 mm (K-connector)40 GHz ground-signal-ground (GSG)Semi-rigid coaxial, 2.92 mm with grounded shield±5°GSG pitch spacing
RF/microwave up to 67 GHz
1.85 mm (Z-connector)67 GHz ground-signal-ground (GSG)Semi-rigid coaxial, 1.85 mm with grounded shield±5°GSG pitch spacing
Fiber optic
See fiber optics sectionNon-contact optical probeFiber optic±3°Fiber type, operating wavelength and incident angle

Probing configuration specifications

 Operation frequencyElectrical isolation*CapacitanceImpedanceS11/S22** (reflection)S12/S21** (transmission)
General purpose DCDC to 50 MHz>100 MΩ<100 pF50 ΩNANA
High impedance DCDC to 50 MHz>100 GΩ***<100 pFNANANA
RF up to 1 GHzUp to 1 GHz>10 MΩNot specified50 Ω<-20 dB<±1 dB
RF/microwave up to 40 GHzUp to 40 GHz>1 MΩNot specified50 Ω<-20 dB<±1 dB
RF/microwave up to 67 GHzUp to 67 GHz>1 MΩNot specified50 Ω<-20 dB<±1 dB
Fiber optic See fiber optics sectionNANANANANA

*Isolation measured at 100 V potential between conductive surfaces
**S21 > -10 dB up to 1 GHz, except for a (-40 dB) spike between 400 MHz depending on probe model and placement; S11 < -3 dB up to 1 GHz
***Specified isolation will result in typical leakage currents of <100 fA in a well-designed guarded measurement system

Probe positioning

 X axisY axisZ axis
Travel51 mm (2 in)25 mm (1 in)18 mm (0.7 in)
Translation scale20 µm10 µm10 µm


More about ZN50R probes
More about ZN50R-CVT flexible probes
More about microwave probes
More about fiber optic probes

More about the parametric probe kits